What Life is According to Biology: Simple Answers to the Complex Question “What is Life?”

Biology is an interdisciplinary science in which the concepts of chemistry and physics are frequently applied. Life is defined by many different elements and specific characteristics, stemming from a long history of scientists seeking to answer that simple question: What is life, anyway?

All biology websites or textbooks begin with this supposedly simple question. The scope of it seems large at first, but when looking to define such a complex, multitudinous series of systems, the lens of study becomes smaller and smaller, straight down to the elemental level.

Looking at the Big What-is-Life Picture

All living (and nonliving, for that matter) things are first and foremost composed of matter. Matter is a very broad term, applying to anything that has mass and takes up space in the world. There are of course different types of matter, each with its own particular characteristics. Plants, beetles, gasoline, the family dog, river rocks, the living room couch, and the obnoxious uncle are all made up of matter. But this doesn’t seem to get us any closer to answering the big question; on the contrary, matter is where to start when looking at life as a whole.

From matter, the lens zooms in on elements, of which all matter is comprised. Elements are defined as pieces of matter that cannot be broken down any further into separate entities. As of today, chemists through the ages have identified 92 naturally occurring elements (though some argue that number as low as 88), each with its own unique properties.

Elements join together to form compounds, where two or more different elements combine into a fixed ratio. Without getting too far into the chemistry part of this discussion, when compounds form, their union unleashes emergent properties, which can make two previously dangerous elements into a harmless compound.

For instance, common table salt (NaCl in chemist-speak), which most Northern Americans consume on a daily basis, is a compound made up of the elements sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl). Sodium, on its own, is a heavy metal, and chlorine a toxic gas. Of course, when the two form their ionic bond and become a compound, they are harmless in reasonable doses (consuming extremely large amounts is not a good idea, though). This is an example of the emergent properties of a compound.

The Actual Elements of Life

Out of all those naturally occurring elements, only about 25 or so of the elements are actually known to be essential to life. And out of this smaller group, only four elements make up over 95 percent of living matter, the others being trace elements: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N) and of course, oxygen (O). Other important and not-quite-trace elements that make up most of the other five percent are phosphorous (P), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sulfur (S).

Trace elements are only required in, well, trace amounts. Some are universally needed by the various life forms in trace amounts, such as iron (Fe). Other trace elements are needed on a species-to-species basis.

Identified Indicators and Characteristics of Life

One essential characteristic of life is, quite simply, order and complexity. This does sound vague and almost cliché, but all types of life are highly ordered and diverse, in spite of having very basic similarities. This order and structure is brought about, at the most basic level, by the organizing of elements into compounds and so on down the line.

Next, life adapts to ensure its survival. This is easiest understood when looking at a camouflaged animal. Take the chameleon, for instance. In order to blend in to its environment and avoid being picked off by predators or seen by its prey, it has evolved special pigment cells called chromatophores that allow the lizard to change color.

Life responds to its environment. When the weather is cold, humans put on coats. The arctic fox’s fur changes its brown color to a nice, blending-in white. Plants navigate towards sunlight. They all respond.

All life must process energy, through intake of food and other types of energy sources (like the sun and heat for plants and types of bacteria).

Reproduction is also a necessary characteristic to call something “living.” It must also be able to grow and develop, in order to carry on the genetic information into future generations.

These are only a few of the essential properties of life; this list is far from comprehensive. And with that said, possessing one or a few of these qualities doesn’t necessarily mean something is alive (organelles in cells, for instance, fulfill some of these requirements, but are not considered to be alive). For more information on the properties of life, visit the University of Miami’s colorful and useful 10 Properties of Life page.

When to use and buy Xanax 1mg

Xanax is the brand for the medicine known as alprazolam which is indicated for the management of anxiety disorders. It is the stress related condition which causes the anxiety and other mental problems. It is also indicated for the treatment of the panic disorders with or without the condition known as agoraphobia. It is the discrete period of the fear. The person has to buy Xanax 1mg when he observes following symptoms

  • Palpitation
  • Sweating
  • Shaking
  • Sensation of shortness
  • Choking
  • chest pain
  • nausea
  • dizziness
  • fear of losing the control
  • paresthesia’s
  • fear of dying
  • chills or hot flushes

If the person sees any of these symptoms along with the palpitations and anxiety doctor recommend the emergency treatment.  There are many Xanax suppliers who provide the tablets in the hospital for the emergency treatment of the person suffering from the anxiety disorders. Xanax work by directly acting on the central nervous system and calm down the patient feeling and help in sleeping peacefully.

Side effects of the Xanax

If the person suffers from any condition other then the anxiety state after taking the Xanax he must immediately discontinue the medication to avoid any severe problem the severe side effect the patient can suffer is

  • Headache
  • Insomnia
  • depression
  • Confusion
  • nervousness
  • dizziness
  • dry mouth
  • tachycardia
  • blurred vision

Not all patients suffer from all side effects described effect but adverse effects differ from patient to patient. If anyone of these symptoms gets severe it is important to consult the doctor so that he can prescribe dose or change medication according to the condition. The doctors do not prefer to completely stop the medicine immediately but start with reducing the dose, this is because sudden stoppage may cause withdrawal symptoms that may be severe and sometimes fatal.

How to buy the Xanax

The Xanax is the prescription drug that the person can buy from the nearby pharmacy; there are certain countries which provide the facility of online buying of the medicine. For example, online buying of the Xanax is facilitated in the UK, the patient can buy Xanax in the UK by simply ordering online by giving certain personal information like name, email ID, country name as well as the quantity required. In this way, the patient can get the medicine by sitting at home.



Just What Exactly Are CBD Isolates?

CBD isolate itself is a powdered cannabidiol extract which is tremendously pure. It also contains the rather medicinal elements of cannabis. This substance is anhydrous, 99-percent CBD, and usable as a food or liquid additive. However it is ingested, the user gets to enjoy CBD’s medicinal benefits.

CBD oil use itself is a rather new thing, and there remain many questions surrounding how it exactly works as well as what it is able to do. One thing that is established already is that it’s safe. If you’re able to get CBD which is free of THC, which some CBD isolates are honestly known to, then you are able to get the pain-relieving and healing benefits but not the psychoactive effects.

CBD is used to help calm down individuals, enhance their focus, and assist anyone suffering from a chronic pain ailment. CBD isn’t going to get anyone high, but it is able to help out with arthritis, nagging injuries, ADHD, and even skin conditions.

Some users like to mix CBD isolates with their e-liquids, so they can inhale this substance. Other users prefer putting them into edibles. The benefit there is the boost to bio-availability, but overcooking them can break down the CBD.

There’s a lot of incorrect information surrounding CBD unfortunately. These oils are actually very legal across most of the planet. Canada is a notable exception, where it gets treated as a formally controlled substance, despite the lack of THC. CBD 99% Isolate are pricey, due to their process of purification. However, they’re also very potent, so you’ll discover they work really well.

What Is In CBD?

Cannabidiol, as well as tetrahydrocannabinol, are just two of the many cannabinoids that naturally occur within hemp. They’re pretty similar when seen at a molecular level, and early on, a lot of law enforcement organizations treated them as the same. However, it’s since been discovered that CBD has the mind- and focus-enhancing aspects of cannabis, as well as the fact that it is able to act as a nootropic. However, it is not a psychotropic.

THC does have a mind-altering behavior to it, and that renders it illegal. Some individuals experience things like paranoia, and the potential highs cause them to lose control over their faculties, making THC hazardous in particular environments, like driving or the operation of heavy machinery. So, that’s why it’s illegal in a lot of states.

Cannabis offers pain-relieving effects, and it improves qualify of life for those with serious medical complications. Medical marijuana is a popular choice, but CBD is a possible option for folks that want to relieve their pain without altering their mind. CBD isolate means someone can take in CBD but do so without any strong taste or notable ‘side effects’ happening along the way.

Neither CBD nor THC is addictive. Some individuals seem to enjoy the ‘highs’ produced, but that doesn’t actually mean they’re biologically addicted. CBD offers pain relief at a neurosynaptic level. That pain relief can last a while, but it doesn’t actually cure whatever is triggering the associated pain. Instead, it just creates a reduction of the number of cytokines from the glial cells of an injured part of the body, preventing the feeling of pain when an injury is present.

The ways that THC and CBD interact with one another when marijuana is smoked is complex, and it’s difficult to say just exactly what CBD isolates do when taken by themselves. Preliminary reports and information from ‘early adopters’ on the other hand suggest that CBD works to ease the tremors of Parkinson’s, give better focus to those who are autistic, soothe arthritis pain, and provide general improvement of a person’s quality of life. It’s worth considering a try if you painkillers have failed you in the past.

Atopic Dermatitis Treatment in Harley Street – All you need to Know

Atopic Dermatitis is also known as Eczema. It is a condition in which your skin gets itchy and red. It can occur at any age but it is more common in children. It is a chronic disease and the patient can also experience hay fever and asthma along with it. Science has discovered no cure for this disease but it can be managed through self-care and medication. Atopic Dermatitis treatment Harley Street is done through medicated creams, ointment and moisturizers to skin. Let’ discuss in detail how to treat this disease.

Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis

Before discussing the treatment of this disease let’s first discuss some of the common symptoms of this disease. The symptoms vary from person to person and include:

  • Severe itching which becomes worse at night.
  • Brown reddish patches on the skin that can be on hands, chest, upper chest, eyelids, and neck and under elbow and knees. It can be on scalp.
  • The person has some raised bumps which are small and if the patient continuously scratches them they leak fluid. The skin becomes dry, scaly, cracked, and thickened.
  • The scratches become swollen, raw, and sensitive.

Treatments and Drugs

It is a very persistent type of disease and you have to perform different types of treatments in a month and even throughout the year to control it. Also, if you are properly responding to the medications and treatments it is possible that the symptoms can come back. It is better to understand the condition of the patient before starting any treatment. If regular moisturizing and skin care is not helpful then the doctor can suggest various types of drugs and medicines.

  • Your doctor can prescribe you a corticosteroid cream or ointment. It is necessary to start this cream after fully consulting your doctor because overuse of this cream can cause thinning of skin, discoloration, stretch marks, and infection.
  • There are many creams that can help repair your skin which include calcineurin, Protopic, and Elidel. Once you will apply these creams on your skin, they will help to maintain a normal skin and they will also reduce the symptoms of this disease. These creams are applied when other treatments fail and also when the patient can not tolerate other treatments. These creams are also suitable for children over two years and also for adults. If you have a bacterial infection then many drugs can also treat it.

Complete guide on how to lose belly fat

Struggling with abdominal obesity for years, I intimately understand the frustration that comes along with dragging a “spare tire”. Being skinny and having a large belly is even more frustrating. You are working out, dropping pounds, but the tummy is still there.

This guide is therefore laser specific. Instead of sharing tips across the board, I’ll focus my attention on proven tactics that will reduce your waistline. If you struggle for a while and desperately try to figure out how to lose belly fat, this is a step in the right direction.

As Lifestyle Updated writes in their newly published comprehensive guide- losing belly fat is easy once you know the steps.

So let’s find them out one by one.

Foods that grow your belly

Processed sugar is bad for you

Processed sugar and artificially sweetened beverages increase your blood sugar concentration and insulin resistance. Over time this leads to high glucose levels which in turn make you even hungrier after a meal.

What this process also does, is promoting additional abdominal fat accumulation.

And it is visceral fat, which is the worst type of fat. That’s the one that blankets your internal organs and sits below your abdominal wall.

Artificially processed sugar also has more calories when compared to healthy nutrients such as lean meat or whole grain carbs.

Forget about sweetened beverages as well. Instead try drinking more water and squeezed fruits. The lemon diet, which is really popular in other parts of the world – known as the лимон диета – can help you burn belly fat as well.

Trans fats are dangerous

These will stay in your system much longer than it takes for ordinary fatty acids to process. Therefore, you will start accumulating fat tissue, especially in your problem areas.

Stay away from them.

More protein and more fiber

Eating a high protein diet (on the expense of reducing your caloric intake from carbs, of course) is going to increase your metabolic rate. Up to 30% as Lifestyle Updated points out citing a study published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Low fiber diet is also a precursor to abdominal obesity, so if you are wondering how to lose belly fat one of the ways would be to increase your fiber intake, to match your optimal and recommended daily intake.

Fiber will keep your satiety high, and it will help your digestive system preventing adipose tissue from forming and storing.

Consider these specific foods

Cruciferous vegetables

Cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower contain a very powerful substance called I3C, which is very effective at burning belly fat and adipose tissue in general.

Only a single serving per day (200g) is enough to see noticeable results within a month or so.


This powerful ingredient that is found in the turmeric root (used in curry) is a strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. It will prevent fat tissue from storing and spreading, thus improving your weight loss efforts.

It has a way more powerful effect on visceral fat, and will hence slim your waistline within one month of regular use.


The Cumin seed has incredible effects on improving metabolic rates, and preventing fat storage around the abdomen. All you need is to sprinkle some on your main meals, and be patient.

You will see a noticeable change within two or three weeks.

How to change your diet habits and lose belly fat

You probably know the fundamentals of weight loss, but let’s go over the main principle once again.

In order to see results from the superfoods above, you’ll have to healtify (yup that’s a word now) your diet. And this is how:

  • Eat regularly throughout the day. Three main meals and two or three snacks in between, so you can keep your metabolic rate at optimal efficiency, and satiety levels high. Besides, if you are working out, you’ll need regular nutrition intake in order to see some results.
  • Follow the golden ratio. Tune your caloric intake so you have your calories from 40% carbs, 40% protein, and 20% fats.
  • Hydrate often. Take with you a bottle of water, and make sure to drink small sips throughout the entire day.
  • Your carb intake should be from whole grain foods.

Eat healthy, keep yourself hydrated, rest and supplement with some of the superfoods mentioned above. You will be losing up to 3-4 pounds per week on this lean and healthy diet.

Then you can add exercise once or twice per week. At least at first.

Ab workouts for losing belly fat

Most people believe that ab workouts mean infinite repetitions of the same old crunch. But that cannot be further from the truth. In order to reduce belly fat, you’ll need to be doing anaerobic exercises, and high intensity cardio sequences.

Then, after you have some momentum going on, you can incorporate strength and resistance moves that target the core.

Keep your workouts short in length (say around 20 minutes), and add intensity as time goes by.

Start with 2 sessions per week, and increase from there.

Losing belly fat is easy

If you think that reducing your tummy is a tough process, just remember that all you have to do is follow certain principles. If you are dedicated enough and stay on course for about a month, your fat belly will disappear and you will have a flat abdomen instead.

Make sure to watch your caloric intake, eat clean, and have enough rest. Then just add two or three workout sessions per week and you will see your body transforming in no time.